WiMAX vs Wi-Fi


Nowadays, advance of technology are move faster. The important of information technology can give a lot of goodness to our life. For example, buying and selling products by using internet technology. This case, users can survey a products or services via internet. Where, users can do a price comparison before buying. As a result, users did not to queue a long time at the supermarket or somewhere to buy a product.
To many users, the internet means worldwide network of linked computer. History of the internet has began as a research network funded by the U.S Defense Department in 1969. By 1983, the network still consisted of merely several hundred computers only a few local area networks.
More and more private companies and organization linked up to the internet, and by the mid-1990s,the internet included connection to more than sixty countries and more than two million host computers with more than fifteen million users worldwide.
By 2001, the users’ internet was representing 6.71 percent of the world population were used internet. Every year, user internet percentage always increases. For the information, the internet has many type of connection like Wireless, Cable Modem and so on. Advance type of internet connection, give something news to the users test.
Now, the wireless most used to connect the internet. IEEE 802.11 or Wi-Fi is famous wireless that used right now. However, news wireless was created. It refers to WiMAX wireless. In Malaysia, WiMAX have located in big cities only.

WiMAX is short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX or IEEE 802.16 is a communications technology that uses radio spectrum to transmit tens of megabits per second in bandwidth between digital devices such as laptop computers. Similar to Wi-Fi, WiMAX brings with it the ability to transmit over far greater distances and to handle much more data.
WiMAX was developed by equipment manufacturers, service providers, and software companies around the world all of who were motivated to ensure that equipment, regardless of who made it, would will interoperate. In practice, WiMax will likely be made available to consumers by companies such as Cingular and Verizon. These companies have purchased the necessary rights to the radio spectrum and are building nationwide networks.
WiMAX will coexist as a radio capability on the mobile computer, along with other radio technologies such as wireless fidelity and third-generation (3G), for many years.

WiMAX is a connection-oriented technology. This WiMAX is affects only the Physical Layer and the MAC portion in the Data Link Layer of the OSI Model. Therefore the 802.16 specification mainly describes the scheduling of communication between towers and WiMAX devices.
The bandwidth and reach of WiMAX make it suitable for application like connecting Wi-Fi hotspots, wireless broadband support, high speed mobile data transfer and 4G.

1. WiMAX type’s connections are:-
i. Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
- One frequency is sent from the base tower to another station tower and from the station tower to the base tower.
- The base tower constantly communicates to all towers at one frequency and each station tower is responds back at another frequency.

ii. Time Division Duplexing (TDD).
- The base tower transmits at one frequency to a station tower and receives data from the station tower at another frequency.
- The base tower sends data at certain time intervals and allots time to wait to hear from station towers.

2. The important components needed are:
i. Base Station
These are a spot which provides you wireless connectivity, like satellites which relay signal back and forth. Together they form WiMAX network.

ii. WiMAX Hub
These are core base station from where everything is sent to base stations. This does the same what any server in network does, acts as a source or brain of the network.

iii. Access Points
These are optional somewhere but are used mainly when you have more than 3-4 wireless gadgets requiring accessing WiMAX network. Say in your home if you have 4 laptops who want to connect to internet, use access point simple.

iv. WiMAX enabled Devices
Of course this is what we use, laptops, mobiles Wi-Fi hotspots and others. They all connect to access points to get to internet.

Take a look at the image again and you will understand clearly about how WiMAX works.

Conclusion, WiMAX can be envisioned as a mesh network where each node (tower/access points) can communicate with each other in order to extend the range of WiMAX and, therefore, allows robust communication as there are multiple routes a signal can take

Have four types of WiMAX technical specifications such as:-
1. Frequency Range
- 2-11 GHz (Non Line-Of-Sight)
- 10-66 GHz (Line-Of-Sight)

2. Signal Range
- 5 miles (Non Line-Of-Sight)
- 30 miles (Line-Of-Sight)

3. Bandwidth – 70 Mbps
4. Number of users – Thousands users

Implementing WiMAX is a tricky thing as it relates to sending signals in air which is open door for hackers intercepting them. But the good news is WiMAX runs on licensed bandwidth or frequency, thus is more secure.

1. Long Range
The most significant benefit of WiMAX compared to existing wireless technologies is the range. WiMAX has a communication range of up to 30 miles. This can cover over 2800 square miles enough to blanket an entire city.

2. Low Cost
Base stations will cost under $20,000 but will still provide customers with T1-class connections.

3. Wireless
By using a WiMAX system, companies/ residents no longer have to rip up buildings or streets or lay down expensive cables.

4. High Bandwidth
WiMAX can provide shared data rates of up to 70 Mb/s. This is enough bandwidth to support more than 60 businesses at once with T1-type connectivity. It can also support over a thousand homes at 1 Mb/s DSL-level connectivity. Also, there will be a reduction in latency for all WiMAX communications.

5. WiMAX can provide users with two forms of wireless service:
i. Non Line-of-Sight:
Operates at 2 to 11 GHz, which at a lower level frequency has the ability to bend around obstacles more easily. Here, a small antenna on a computer connects to the tower and is backwards compatible with existing Wi-Fi technologies.

ii. Line-of-Sight:
Can go as high as 66 GHz since the signal is stronger and more stable, which leads to greater bandwidth. Here, a fixed dish antenna points straight at the tower or for communication between towers to tower

6. Advantages to Equipment Makers:
i. Innovate more rapidly because there exists a standards-based, stable platform upon which to rapidly add new capabilities.
ii. No longer need to develop every piece of the end-to-end solution.

7. Advantages to Operators:
i. A common platform which drives down the cost of equipment and accelerates price/performance improvements unachievable with proprietary approaches.
ii. Generate revenue by filling broadband access gaps.
iii. Quickly provision T1 / E1 level and "on demand" high margin broadband services.
iv. Reduce the dollar risk associated with deployment as equipment will be less expensive due to economies of scale.
v. No longer be locked into a single vendor since base stations will interoperate with multiple vendors' CPEs.

8. Advantages to Consumers:
i. More broadband access choices, especially in areas where there are gaps: worldwide urban centers where building access is difficult; in suburban areas where the subscriber is too far from the central office; and in rural and low population density areas where infrastructure is poor.
ii. More choices for broadband access will create competition which will result in lower monthly subscription prices.


1. Hesitancy
Companies are very hesitant of setting up WiMAX base stations today since it is has not reached widespread use yet. One solution to this problem is Intel making their Centrino laptop processors WiMAX enabled within the next few years. All laptops are expected to have WiMAX by 2008.

2. Exclusion of start-up companies
Even though cost provides a low barrier to entry, none of the startup companies are projected to be major players in the development of WiMAX. Intel and Cisco seem to have an obvious advantage today, and by the time it reaches widespread use, large operators will find WiMAX to be a very attractive new way of raising revenues.

3. Research and development
In order for WiMAX to succeed, new products must be researched and developed to incorporate WiMAX. Without the help of major companies investing in this R&D, WiMAX could be gravely underutilized.

4. Weather conditions like rain could interrupt the signal.

5. 0ther wireless equipment could cause interference.

6. Multiplied frequencies are used.

7. WiMAX is very power intensive technology and requires strong electrical support.

8. Big installation and operational coast.

WiMAX is similar to the wireless standard known as Wi-Fi, but on a much larger scale and at faster speeds. A nomadic version would keep WiMAX-enabled devices connected over large areas, much like today’s cell phones. We can compare it with Wi-Fi based on the following factors:-

1. IEEE Standards
Wi-Fi is based on IEEE 802.11 standard where as WiMAX is based on IEEE 802.16. However both are IEEE standards.

2. Range
Wi-Fi typically provides local network access for around a few hundred feet with speeds of up to 54 Mbps, a single WiMAX antenna is expected to have a range of up to 40 miles with speeds of 70 Mbps or more. As such, WiMAX can bring the underlying Internet connection needed to service local Wi-Fi networks.

3. Scalability
Wi-Fi is intended for LAN applications, users scale from one to tens with one subscriber for each CPE device. Fixed channel sizes (20MHz).
WiMAX is designed to efficiently support from one to hundreds of Consumer premises equipments (CPE) s, with unlimited subscribers behind each CPE. Flexible channel sizes from 1.5MHz to 20MHz.

4. Bit rate
Wi-Fi works at 2.7 bps/Hz and can peak up to 54 Mbps in 20 MHz channel.
WiMAX works at 5 bps/Hz and can peak up to 100 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel.

5. Quality of Service
Wi-Fi does not guarantee any QoS but WiMax will provide your several level of QoS.
As such, WiMAX can bring the underlying Internet connection needed to service local Wi-Fi networks. Wi-Fi does not provide ubiquitous broadband while WiMAX does.


E-mail: zulasyraf89[at]gmail.com


Name: Z-u-l-a-s-y-r-a-f
Age: 23 > 24 > 25 > 26 >27
Gender: Male

Industry: Student (graduate Sc Comp, Now Information System Engineering UiTM Shah Alam)
Location: Kota Bharu,Kelantan,Malaysia

About Me
Mencari sesuatu yang Baru

belajar programming
pasal internet
mathematik dan banyak lagi..

Download Beta LimeWire

Download LimeWire Basic from AppHit.com

Salam Ramadhan.

More RAMADHAN graphics

More RAMADHAN graphics

Selamat Menyambut hari Kemerdekaan ke-52

More MERDEKA graphics

More MERDEKA graphics

Teka-teki Matemaitk


teka- teki ni berbunyi begini:

Dalam sebuah kolam ada sejenis hidupan yang terapung
di permukaan air(e.g : keladi buting,teratai or wat ever la).

Sehari, satu hidupan(teratai) itu membiak 1 kali ganda.
jika 2 hari dah jadi 4 teratai dalam permukaan kolam tersebut.
hari ke-3 dah ada 8 teratai..

dan hari ke-14 teratai itu memenuhi separuh kolam...

agak-agak korang(pemmbaca) hari keberapa permukaan kolam
tersebut dipenuhi oleh teratai

The Mathematical Legacy of Islam

Ajaib tetapi benar! Lihatlah sebahagian daripada hasil kajian
oleh cendekiawan Islam terhadap kandungan Al-Quran. Didapati banyak
perkara telah disentuh dan telah dibuat kajian oleh manusia seperti
nombor, astronomi, angkasalepas, perubatan, geologi, kejuruteraan, minda dan
sebagainya.Bilangan tentang perkara yang disebutkan di dalam Al-Quran:

DUNIA - 115 kali
AKHIRAT - 115 kali
MALAIKAT - 88 kali
SYAITAN - 88 kali HIDUP - 145 kali
MATI - 145 kali
FAEDAH - 50 kali
KERUGIAN - 50 kali
UMMAH - 50 kali
PENYAMPAI - 50 kali
BALA/MUSIBAH - 75 kali
BERSYUKUR - 75 kali
BERSEDEKAH - 73 kali
BERPUAS HATI - 73 kali
MUSLIMIN - 41 kali
JIHAD - 41 kali
EMAS - 8 kali
KEAJAIBAN - 60 kali
FITNAH - 60 kali
ZAKAT - 32 kali
BERKAT - 32 kali
MINDA - 49 kali
NUR - 49 kali
LIDAH - 25 kali
SUMPAH - 25 kali
NAFSU - 8 kali
KETAKUTAN - 8 kali
BERDAKWAH - 18 kali
KESUSAHAN - 114 kali
KESABARAN - 114 kali
MUHAMMAD - 4 kali
SYARIAT - 4 kali
LELAKI - 24 kali
PEREMPUAN - 24 kali
BULAN - 12 kali
HARI - 365 kali
LAUTAN - 32 kali
DARATAN - 13 kali
LAUT dan DARAT = 32 + 13 = 45
Justeru itu, peratusan laut = 32/45 x 100 = 71.11111111 peratus
Peratusan daratan = 13/45 x 100 = 28.88888889 peratus
JUMLAH = 100 peratus

Kajian sains oleh manusia telah membuktikan bahawa air meliputi
71.111 peratus daripada bumi dan tanah meliputi 28.889 peratus.
Kajian sains oleh manusia telah membuktikan bahawa air meliputi
71.111 peratus daripada bumi dan tanah meliputi 28.889 peratus.Begitulah
kebesaran dan keagungan ciptaan Allah SWT!!
Kajian sains oleh manusia telah membuktikan bahawa air meliputi
71.111 peratus daripada bumi dan tanah meliputi 28.889 peratus.Begitulah
kebesaran dan keagungan ciptaan Allah SWT!!

Math Yang Comel LOTE

1 x 8 + 1 = 9
12 x 8 + 2 = 98
123 x 8 + 3 = 987
1234 x 8 + 4 = 9876
12345 x 8 + 5 = 98765
123456 x 8 + 6 = 987654
1234567 x 8 + 7 = 9876543
12345678 x 8 + 8 = 98765432
123456789 x 8 + 9 = 987654321
1 x 9 + 2 = 11
12 x 9 + 3 = 111
123 x 9 + 4 = 1111
1234 x 9 + 5 = 11111
12345 x 9 + 6 = 111111
123456 x 9 + 7 = 1111111
1234567 x 9 + 8 = 11111111
12345678 x 9 + 9 = 111111111
123456789 x 9 +10= 1111111111
9 x 9 + 7 = 88
98 x 9 + 6 = 888
987 x 9 + 5 = 8888
9876 x 9 + 4 = 88888
98765 x 9 + 3 = 888888
987654 x 9 + 2 = 8888888
9876543 x 9 + 1 = 88888888
98765432 x 9 + 0 = 888888888
Brilliant, isn ' t it?
And look at this symmetry:
1 x 1 = 1
11 x 11 = 121
111 x 111 = 12321
1111 x 1111 = 1234321
11111 x 11111 = 123454321
111111 x 111111 = 12345654321
1111111 x 1111111 = 1234567654321
11111111 x 11111111 = 123456787654321
111111111 x 111111111=123456789 87654321

Now, takes a look at this...
From a strictly mathematical viewpoint:
What Equals 100%? What does it mean to
give MORE than 100%?
Ever wonder about those people who say
they are giving more than 100%?
We have all been in situations where
someone wants you to GIVE OVER
How about ACHIEVING 101%?
What equals 100% in life?
Here ' s a little mathematical formula
that might help answer these


Is represented as:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26.

H-A-R-D-W-O- R- K
8+1+18+4+23+ 15+18+11 = 98%

K-N-O-W-L-E- D-G-E
11+14+15+23+ 12+5+ 4+7+5 = 96%

A-T-T-I-T-U- D-E
1+20+20+9+20+ 21+4+5 = 100%

THEN, look how far the love of God
will take you:
L-O-V-E-O-F- G-O-D
12+15+22+5+15+ 6+7+15+4 = 101%

Therefore, one can conclude with
mathematical certainty that:
While Hard Work and Knowledge will get
you close, and Attitude will
get you there, It ' s the Love of God
that will put you over the top!
It ' s up to you if you share this
with your friends just
the way I did.
Have a nice day


Allah SWT berfirman: “Sungguh telah dekat hari qiamat, dan bulan pun telah terbelah (Q.S. Al-Qamar: 1)”


Dalam temu wicara di televisi bersama pakar Geologi Muslim, Prof. Dr. Zaghlul Al-Najar, salah seorang warga Inggris mengajukan pertanyaan kepadanya, apakah ayat dari surat Al-Qamar di atas memiliki kandungan mukjizat secara ilmiah ? Maka Prof. Dr. Zaghlul Al-Najar menjawabnya
sebagai berikut :

Tentang ayat ini, saya akan menceritakan sebuah kisah. Sejak beberapa waktu lalu, saya mempresentasikan di Univ. Cardif, Inggris bagian barat, dan para peserta yang hadir bermacam-macam, ada yang muslim dan ada juga
yang bukan muslim. Salah satu tema diskusi waktu itu adalah seputar mukjizat ilmiah dari Al-Qur’an.

Salah seorang pemuda yang beragama muslim pun berdiri dan bertanya,
“Wahai Tuan, apakah menurut anda ayat yang berbunyi “Telah dekat hari qiamat dan bulan pun telah terbelah” mengandung mukjizat secara ilmiah ?
Maka saya menjawabnya: “Tidak, sebab kehebatan ilmiah dapat diterangkan
oleh ilmu pengetahuan, sedangkan mukjizat tidak bisa diterangkan oleh ilmu pengetahuan, sebab ia tidak bisa menjangkaunya. Dan tentang terbelahnya bulan, maka itu adalah mukjizat yang terjadi pada Rasul terakhir Muhammad shallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam sebagai pembenaran atas kenabian dan kerasulannya, sebagaimana nabi-nabi sebelumnya. Dan mukjizat yang kelihatan, maka itu disaksikan dan dibenarkan oleh setiap
orang yang melihatnya.

Andai hal itu tidak termaktub di dalam kitab Allah
dan hadits-hadits Rasulullah SAW, maka tentulah kami para
muslimin di zaman ini tidak akan mengimani hal itu. Akan tetapi hal itu memang benar termaktub di dalam Al-Qur’an dan sunnah-sunnah Rasulullah
shallallahu alaihi wassalam. Dan memang Allah ta’alaa benar-benar Maha berkuasa atas segala sesuatu”.

Maka Prof. Dr. Zaghlul Al-Najar pun mengutip sebuah kisah Rasulullah SAW
membelah bulan. Kisah itu adalah di masa sebelum hijrah dari Mekah
Al-Mukarramah ke Madinah. Orang-orang musyrik berkata, “Wahai Muhammad,
kalau engkau benar Nabi dan Rasul, coba tunjukkan kepada kami satu
kehebatan yang bisa membuktikan kenabian dan kerasulanmu (mengejek dan
mengolok-olok)?” Rasulullah bertanya, “Apa yang kalian inginkan ?” Mereka
menjawab: “Coba belahlah bulan …” Maka Rasulullah SAW pun berdiri dan
terdiam, lalu berdoa kepada Allah SWT agar menolongnya. Maka Allah SWT
memberitahu Muhammad SAW agar mengarahkan telunjuknya ke bulan. Rasulullah

pun mengarahkan telunjuknya ke bulan, dan terbelahlah bulan itu dengan
sebenar-benarnya. Maka serta-merta orang-orang musyrik pun berujar,
“Muhammad, engkau benar-benar telah menyihir kami!”.

Akan tetapi para ahli mengatakan bahwa sihir, memang benar bisa saja
“menyihir” orang yang ada disampingnya akan tetapi tidak bisa menyihir
orang yang tidak ada ditempat itu. Mereka lantas menunggu-nunggu
orang-orang yang akan pulang dari perjalanan. Orang-orang Quraisy pun
bergegas menuju keluar batas kota Mekkah menanti orang yang baru pulang
dari perjalanan. Dan ketika datang rombongan yang pertama kali dari
perjalanan menuju Mekkah, maka orang-orang musyrik pun bertanya, “Apakah
kalian melihat sesuatu yang aneh dengan bulan?”. Mereka menjawab, “Ya,
benar. Pada suatu malam yang lalu kami melihat bulan terbelah menjadi dua
dan saling menjauh masing-masingnya kemudian bersatu kembali…!!!”.

Maka sebagian mereka pun beriman, dan sebagian lainnya lagi tetap kafir
(ingkar). Oleh karena itu, Allah menurunkan ayat-Nya: “Sungguh, telah dekat hari qiamat, dan telah terbelah bulan, dan ketika melihat
tanda-tanda kebesaran Kami, merekapun ingkar lagi berpaling seraya
berkata, “Ini adalah sihir yang terus-menerus”, dan mereka
mendustakannya, bahkan mengikuti hawa nafsu mereka. Dan setiap urusan
benar-benar telah tetap …..” sampai akhir surat Al-Qamar.

“Ini adalah kisah nyata”, demikian kata Prof. Dr. Zaghlul Al-Najar. Dan
setelah selesainya Prof. Dr. Zaghlul menyampaikan hadits nabi tersebut,
berdirilah seorang muslim warga Inggris dan memperkenalkan diri seraya
berkata, “Aku Daud Musa Pitkhok, ketua Al-Hizb Al-Islamy Inggris. Wahai
tuan, bolehkah aku menambahkan?” Prof. Dr. Zaghlul Al-Najar menjawab:
“Dipersilahkan dengan senang hati.”

Daud Musa Pitkhok berkata, “Aku pernah meneliti agama-agama (sebelum
menjadi muslim), maka salah seorang mahasiswa muslim menunjukiku sebuah
terjemah makna-makna Al-Qur’an yang mulia. Maka, aku pun berterima kasih
kepadanya dan aku membawa terjemah itu pulang ke rumah. Dan ketika aku
membuka-buka terjemahan Al-Qur’an itu di rumah, maka surat yang pertama
aku buka ternyata Al-Qamar. Dan aku pun membacanya: “Telah dekat hari
qiamat dan bulan pun telah terbelah…….” Maka aku pun
bergumam: Apakah kalimat ini masuk akal?? Apakah mungkin bulan bisa
terbelah kemudian bersatu kembali?? Andai benar, kekuatan macam apa yang
bisa melakukan hal itu??? Maka, aku pun menghentikan dari membaca
ayat-ayat selanjutnya dan aku menyibukkan diri dengan urusan kehidupan
sehari-hari. Akan tetapi Allah-lah Yang Maha Tahu tentang tingkat
keikhlasan hamba-Nya dalam pencarian kebenaran.

Maka aku pun suatu hari duduk di depan televisi Inggris. Saat itu ada
sebuah diskusi hangat antara presenter seorang Inggris dan 3 orang pakar
ruang angkasa AS. Ketiga pakar antariksa tersebut pun menceritakan tentang

dana yang begitu besar dalam rangka melakukan perjalanan ke antariksa. Dan

diantara diskusi tersebut adalah tentang turunnya
astronot menjejakkan kakiknya di bulan, dimana perjalanan antariksa ke
bulan tersebut telah menghabiskan dana tidak kurang dari 100 juta
dollar. Mendengar hal itu, presenter terperangah kaget dan berkata,
“Kebodohan macam apalagi ini, dana begitu besar dibuang oleh AS hanya
untuk bisa mendarat di bulan?” Mereka pun menjawab, “Tidak, ..!!!
Tujuannya tidak semata menancapkan ilmu pengetahuan AS di bulan, akan
tetapi kami mempelajari kandungan yang ada di dalam bulan itu sendiri,
maka kami pun telah mendapat hakikat tentang bulan itu, yang jika kita
berikan dana lebih dari 100 juta dollar untuk kesenangan manusia, maka
kami tidak akan memberikan dana itu kepada siapapun. Maka presenter itu
pun bertanya, “Hakikat apa yang kalian telah capai sehingga demikian mahal
taruhannya?” Mereka menjawab, “Ternyata bulan pernah mengalami pembelahan di suatu hari dahulu kala, kemudian menyatu kembali.!!!”

Presenter pun
bertanya, “Bagaimana kalian bisa yakin akan hal itu?” Mereka menjawab,
“Kami mendapati secara pasti dari batuan-batuan yang terpisah terpotong di permukaan bulan sampai di dalam (perut) bulan. Maka kami pun meminta para
pakar geologi untuk menelitinya, dan mereka mengatakan, “Hal ini tidak
mungkin telah terjadi kecuali jika memang bulan pernah terbelah lalu
bersatu kembali”.

Mendengar paparan itu, ketua Al-Hizb Al-Islamy Inggris mengatakan, “Maka aku pun turun dari kursi dan berkata, “Mukjizat (kehebatan) benar-benar
telah terjadi pada diri Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wassallam 1400-an tahun yang lalu. Allah benar-benar telah mengolok-olok AS untuk
mengeluarkan dana yang begitu besar, 100 juta dollar lebih, hanya untuk
menetapkan akan kebenaran muslimin !!!!”".

Maka, agama Islam ini tidak mungkin salah … (aku pun bergumam), “Maka, aku pun membuka kembali Mushhaf Al-Qur’an dan aku baca surat Al-Qamar, dan

… saat itu adalah awal aku menerima dan masuk Islam.

Diterjemahkan oleh: Abu Muhammad ibn Shadiq


Sebarkan kepada kaum muslimin dan muslimat yg anda kenal… Sungguh suatu pendedahan yg bermanfaat bagi kita semua…Alhamdulillah.

Is Computer Programming a difficult subject

Nowadays, peoples know about programming and think that programming is killer subject. This case, you must set your mind what is better to do before think the computer programming is difficult subject. In other hand, you need to learn the computer programming first.

What is computer programming? Computer programming is the process of writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language. For examples are java, c++ and PHP programming language. Different programming languages support different styles of programming is called programming paradigm.

Components should be containing in computer programs are hardware, operating system and software. Some of the current programming trend as Mechanisms for adding security and reliability verification to the language, XML for graphical interface, and Integration with databases.

The purpose of programming is to create a program that exhibits a certain desired behavior. That program can call a system development. Every computer program (system) has been created contains of advantages and disadvantages. Some of advantages are the system will make easier to users to communicate each other and the systems also will be saving the data that users enter. And for disadvantages that system like as a programmer, need familiar with syntax of program. Lack of syntax gives difficult to user’s communication.

Software applications nowadays are Web applications that can be used by anyone with a Web browser. Examples of such applications include the Google search service and the Hotmail e-mail service. Artificial intelligent is also current application designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer.

Refers computer programming, programmer is needed. Programmer is someone who writes code for systems development. For the process of writing source code often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic.

After have a knowledge’s, programmer may be employed as software engineers, information system engineers, information system officers, programmers, system designers, system developers and IT project managers. There are also job opportunities in support areas such as marketing, sales, management consultancy and systems support.

As a result, computer programming is not a difficult subject to try. What need to do is learn and think positive. No subjects are easy else you learn first.

Mathematic Formulas and important concept

Chapter 1: Function

Definition: function is relation of object and image. In other word, function is a correspondence between two sets A and B that assigns to each element of set A to element of B:
Denoted by: f : A -->B or f(a)=b
What is object and image?

a. Relation
One-to-one: Each element of set A for each element of set B

One-to-many: More image(element of set B) of one object(element of set A)


**A is called domain of the function f and b is called the codomain. The image of A is called range of f

b. Composite function

Definition: Combination of two functions

**if f:A-->B and g:B-->C, thus composite gf is function of gf: A--> C

c. Inverse function:

Definition: if domain to codomain is called function, then codomain refer to domain is called inverse function.

**inverse function of f is f¯¹
**if f(a)= b, then f¯¹(b) = a

d. Example question:

1. Given f(x) = 2x and g(x) = 3x+2, find gf(x) and fg(x).

gf(x) = g(f(x))
= g(2x)
= 3(2x) +2
= 6x + 2
fg(x) = f(g(x))
= f(3x+2)
= 2(3x + 2)
= 6x + 4
2. Given f(x)= 2x + 1, find f¯¹(x).

Let f(y) = x----------1
F(y) = 2y + 1--------2
2 into 1:
2y + 1 = x
2y = x - 1
y= (x-1)/2
thus, f¯¹(x) =(x-1)/2

Math Formula

Basic Math formula:

1. a + 0 = a
2. a + (-a) = 0
3. (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
4. a + b = b + a
5. a - b = a + (-b)
6. a * b = ab

Statictics solve problem

Statistics is the art of learning from data. It is concerned with the collection of data, its subsequent description, and its analysis, which often leads to the drawing of Conclusions.

Statistics is also is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. Statisticians improve the quality of data with the design of experiments and survey sampling. Statistics also provides tools for prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models. Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government, and business.
Sometimes a statistical analysis begins with a given set of data: For instance, the government regularly collects and publicizes data concerning yearly precipitation totals, earthquake occurrences, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product, and the rate of inflation. Statistics can be used to describe, summarize, and analyze this data.

Example of statistic question and answer:

1. A sample of eleven bags of sugar each marked 1 kg actually contained the following weights:

1.02 1.05 1.08 1.03 1.00
1.06 1.08 1.01 1.04 1.07 1.00

a) The mean.

Mean is average of data collection,
(1.02+ 1.05 + 1.08 + 1.03 + 1.00 + 1.06 + 1.08 + 1.01+ 1.04 + 1.07 + 1.00)/11 =1.04kg

Thus, mean = 1.04kg.

Popular Posts


Sila Klik, Untuk  Menempah Web Profesional!
Facebook Page
Facebook Page
Back to Top